Marimekko charts encode two variables: one along the height of the vertical axis and another using the width of the bars or columns. This one from The Economist, for example, has GDP per capita ($) on the vertical axis and share of global population (%) along the horizontal axis.
There are alternatives, of course; they could have used a scatterplot or maybe two column charts. But the Marimekko, I think, does a nice job extending the standard column chart in another dimension.
Learn How to construct it in the following link: Marimekko Chart in Excel